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HOPO can be used as an additive during peptide synthesis to reduce racemization and thereby increase chiral purity of the final product. Its solubility in water makes it especially useful during solution-phase peptide synthesis. HOPO has also shown to be useful in other applications, including the functionalization of self-assembled monolayers.

CAS: 13161-30-3

Synonym: 2-Hydroxypyridine-N-oxide




Molecular Formula


Molecular Weight

111.10 gr/mol


Off-white to brown powder

Storage Conditions

keep in a cool place


  • HOPO is mainly used in amide bond formation in peptide synthesis.
  • HOPO can also be used to remove iron ions by chelation from human transferrin.
  • The ability of self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silica supports functionalized with HOPO to remove lanthanides.


  • Ho, G.J., Emerson, K.M., Mathre, D.J., Shuman, R.F., Grabowski, E.J.J. Carbodiimide-mediated amide formation in a two-phase system. A high-yield and low-racemization procedure for peptide synthesis.J.Org.Chem.1995, 60, 3569-3570.
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  • E. Quirk, C. Davies, P. Foy, A. Bretnall, G. S. Clarke Determination of 2-Hydroxypyridine-1-Oxide (HOPO) at sub-ppm levels using derivitization and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GCMS)Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 92 (2014) 127–134
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